Political Science Lesson by Narada

Lokapala Sabhakhyana Parva | Sabha Parva Chapter 1

Mahabharata is rich with lessons of Political Science, Philosophy, Righteous act and Social Science, Psychology and high level Religion for Progress of Society. Lokapala Sabhakhyna Parva, the first chapter of Sabha Parva, deals with a perfect historical journey through the best of Sabhas, throughout the Map, including Amravati, Brahmalok, Sudharma of Dwarka and Indraprastha of Pandavas. But the most important edition in this chapter is the deep lesson of Political Science by Narada muni. The lesson of Political Science preached by Narada Muni here is capable to create any great King. The Political science lesson here has also the capacity to retain a King in his position for decades. Let’s find out the Political Science lesson in depth.

Guidelines of Narada Muni : 

  • Must find Pleasure in Virtue
  • Must not sink under weight of Pleasure
  • Never Injure religion for the sake of wealth and both religion and wealth for the sake of Pleasure
  • Divide time equally for Religion, Wealth, Pleasure and Salvation
  • Only trusted servants must be kept to take care of food, robes, women houses and perfumes
  • Personal Expenditure must be one fourth of income
  • Sleep for three parts of night and remain awake for the last and the forth part thinking about religion and profit then.

Explanation : 

Virtue means sticking to the righteous words of the holy scripts. These are the codes of conducts for anyone. The most important codes of conducts are as follows:

  • Arranging Varnasram system in society and understanding the importance of four classes of working men in society and also finding the need to separate them from each other.
  • Another important code of conduct is who can beg. According to the scripts, one whose Upanayan (Social formality to send Kids to Guru Ashram) has not been completed cannot go for begging. If he/she goes, the responsibility or the ill effect of the act goes to the king and none else.
  • Yet another important code of conduct is related to training of Kids. Only a weak education system allows kids to be trained in Father’s house. The affection a father and mother shows to their kids stops their mental development.

This way, there are lots of code of conducts that forms the book of virtue. According to the guidelines of Political science by Narada Muni to Yudhisthira, a King must find pleasure in those virtues. Finding pleasure in those essentially means, the King must understand what the virtues are and why they are important to be practiced in society.

Narada Muni’s Political Science guidelines also say that a King must not be loaded with that pleasure. Anything put weight on mind when that is followed according to the books, without a proper understanding. Hence, the guidelines here, directs Yudhisthira to properly understand those virtues and then accept.

Religion here means the Dharm of a king or Raj-Dharma. According to the Political science lessons, a King must not give acquisition of wealth more importance than that of his Raj-Dharma and for no instance, his fun must overcome the need of acquisition of wealth as well as follow of Raj-Dharma. Raj Dharma states, to a King, the most important activity is to stay on his feet for the service of his subjects and to protect the righteous men among all his subjects, irrespective of blood relation, or relation as foe or ally.

Religion (Dharma) or the righteous path of ruling and leading life, Wealth (Artha) not only means money acquisition but also means distribution of the same according to class or Varnashram, Pleasure (Kam) means assessing what the subjects of the king seek as their daily needs and also to assess what they must have for their life leading in a virtuous style and Salvation (Moksh) means attaining the ultimate purpose of life (uniting with the lord).

Religion, Wealth, Pleasure and Salvation (i.e Dharma, Artha, Kam, Moksh) are the four fields that determines bondage of Husband and Wife. To a king, a Kingdom must be his first wife. And hence, Narada muni, in his principles of Political science guides Ajatshatru to divide his time separately on these four aspects, so that they can be given equal importance in life of his own and also in the life of his subjects. A King can then only be a successful one, when he provides his subjects guide and support in all these areas. Only supporting Wealth (Artha) or Pleasure (Kam), which rulers of Today provides doesn’t dictate a proper king.

Now coming to the very personal life of King, in the Political Science directory of Narada Muni, he talks about the security a King must follow in terms of choosing his servants and personal security. He also narrates the essence of keeping a measure of expenditure against his income and directs his to regularly think on the same at the end hour of the night.

Guidelines of Narada Muni : 

  • No decision must be taken alone, or not even by counsel of too many. Decision of Kingdom must not be relied on a single person, whosoever he is and regardless of the factor that he has immense knowledge of Shastras.
  • Measures that are already taken must only be known to people. Those that are in the state of counselling must not be disclosed to anyone.Justice must not be made thinking about the dear ones
  • A king must be a father to all and must look everyone with equal sight.
  • Monarch must not distinguish between any of his subjects, except the righteous one.
  • A king must ensure that anyone can reach him directly for justice
  • Get report of income and expenditure every forenoon from chief accountants

Explanation : 

Narada muni in his lessons on Political science to King Yudhisthira mentions that a king must not counsel his decisions with lots of people and not also must take singly without counselling. Righteous act of King, according to Manu Samhita states that a King must include the Chief Minister of the state on which a decision has to be made, the minister of that affair on which decision is to be taken and the Raj Guru who is the most learned one in the Kingdom. If the decision taken relies on any other department , information from them must be counselled separately, so that they cannot make a hunch even that a decision is soon going to be taken. Narada Muni, in his checklist of do’s and dont’s has stated the same.

Narada muni also warns the King that he must not be biased to any of his subjects. He again states that a righteous subject, who tells unpleasant words to a king must be more dear to a king, than someone who always praises what the king says. So, righteous men, even he can be in the enemy side, must be treated with great honour by the king.

The ministers of a king can be corrupted, the officers can also be corrupted. But when a king keeps his own door open to all the subjects and all subjects can reach him fearlessly, those corruptions are vanished in a moment. Hence, a King, according to the righteous Political science measures of the great Muni, must open his door for all his subjects.

Finally, Narada muni, in this segment states that there can be excellent financial ministers to him, but a King must go through the details of accounts on his own, every day.

Guidelines of Narada Muni : 

  • There must be Seven Top Officials: The governor of the citadel, the commander of forces, the chief judge, the general in interior command, the chief priest, the chief physician, and the chief astrologer
  • Ministers must be intelligent, brave, with his passions under complete control, and possessed of wisdom and judgment
  • Number of Ministers must be 18 and not more than that, including 3 Spy heads
  • Priest must be possessed of humility, and purity of blood, and renown, and without jealousy and illiberality, well-behaved, intelligent
  • Astrologer must be knowledgeable in physiognomy, capable of interpreting omens, and competent to neutralise the effect of the disturbances of nature
  • Experienced people, who are able to explain causes of things, learned in every branches of Morality must be appointed to train and guide the ministers every time.
  • No employee must remain who wishes increase of food and pay
  • Wives and Children of those, who gave life for the King must be provided special ration
  • There must be four types of forces: Regular troops, allies, mercenaries and irregulars
  • There must be Five offices for protecting the city:  the citadel, the merchants, and the agriculturists, and punishing the criminals
  • Employ people at low offices, watch their righteousness and intelligence and then only put them as senior officers

Explanation : 

Narada Muni gives immense pressure on the employment strategy of a King in the Political Science checklist, recommended by him. He gives a thorough detail of what must be there in the upper level of the officials and the ministry level of the King. Alongside, he also mentions, how the lower office staffs should be and what must be done to them, for the sake of kingdom and subjects of Kingdom.

In his directions, he also mentioned that all the employees must be satisfied with the food and pay, they are provided. Hence, indirectly, Narada Muni directs the King to take care of the Money market of his kingdom too. How a city can be protected and a kingdom as a whole can be protected is also in the Political Science Checklist of the great sage. Along with that, he also stated, the qualities each of the Ministers must have with them. This particular section can readily prepare any one as a proper King, if closely followed.

Guidelines of Narada Muni : 

  • Agriculture must not be dependent only on heavy showers
  • Troops and cadres brought after the sway of foes, must be repressed under King’s own strong troops and must not be kept free
  • Not a single real thief can be freed from prison for lifetime, unless changes in behaviour is observed. A king must take care that no minister frees them by covert
  • It is the duty of king to look that not a single minister or official of his can be won by bribes. One found thus must be immediately retired with only ration for his observed duty.
  • Ministers must be themselves educated in Sastras
  • No ministers must be appointed whose passions are not under control

Explanation : 

This is a vital part of the entire Lesson of Political Science by Narada Muni. This part narrates some of the statements as checklist, none of which are followed by the rulers of the present time. Similar things can be seen in case of the Duty of the King or Personal Life of the King too. This implies why the Political Science of present age has deteriorated so much now.

According to the guidelines, after an enemy is defeated, not a single cadre of that foe must be kept free. Everyone must be repressed under the sway of the ruler. This practice is seen today even in some cases.  A political leader, after winning an election when sits on the throne, mounts all the earlier cadres with his/her own cadre. However, the last two directions are never followed by the leaders of present time, and that lack of following is made quite intentionally and knowingly.

The real thieves are deliberately freed in market by the government now, which is an absolute no-to-do action for a king. At the same time, Bribe taking is a regular incidence now, where King himself mostly remains as the leader. The final two guidelines are to appoint ministers only when they are learned in Sastras. Sastras, here, essentially means the codes of conduct related to virtue. However, knowledge of Ministers of now are confined to the Constitution at most, if any. The final direction of Political Science by the renowned saint was to put those people as ministers only, whose passions are under control. Nothing to say here about today’s practices, since hardly one person in a million can be found like that.

Content of Narada Muni's lessons on Political Science

Following are the four areas, on which Narada Muni gave lessons in Checklist format to King Yudhisthira at Indraprastha Sabha, built by Maya, the Demon:

Personal Life of a King Political Science Lesson by Narada Muni

Guidelines about Personal life of a Monarch
  • Must find Pleasure in Virtue
  • Must not sink under weight of Pleasure
  • Never Injure religion for the sake of wealth and both religion and wealth for the sake of Pleasure
  • Divide time equally for Religion, Wealth, Pleasure and Salvation
  • Only trusted servants must be kept to take care of food, robes, women houses and perfumes
  • Personal Expenditure must be one fourth of income
  • Sleep for three parts of night and remain awake for the last and the forth part thinking about religion and profit then.
Explanation of Personal Life Guidelines

Virtue means sticking to the righteous words of the holy scripts. These are the codes of conducts for anyone. The most important codes of conducts are as follows:

  • Arranging Varnasram system in society and understanding the importance of four classes of working men in society and also finding the need to separate them from each other.
  • Another important code of conduct is who can beg. According to the scripts, one whose Upanayan (Social formality to send Kids to Guru Ashram) has not been completed cannot go for begging. If he/she goes, the responsibility or the ill effect of the act goes to the king and none else.
  • Yet another important code of conduct is related to training of Kids. Only a weak education system allows kids to be trained in Father’s house. The affection a father and mother shows to their kids stops their mental development.

This way, there are lots of code of conducts that forms the book of virtue. According to the guidelines of Political science by Narada Muni to Yudhisthira, a King must find pleasure in those virtues. Finding pleasure in those essentially means, the King must understand what the virtues are and why they are important to be practiced in society.

Narada Muni’s Political Science guidelines also say that a King must not be loaded with that pleasure. Anything put weight on mind when that is followed according to the books, without a proper understanding. Hence, the guidelines here, directs Yudhisthira to properly understand those virtues and then accept.

Religion here means the Dharm of a king or Raj-Dharma. According to the Political science lessons, a King must not give acquisition of wealth more importance than that of his Raj-Dharma and for no instance, his fun must overcome the need of acquisition of wealth as well as follow of Raj-Dharma. Raj Dharma states, to a King, the most important activity is to stay on his feet for the service of his subjects and to protect the righteous men among all his subjects, irrespective of blood relation, or relation as foe or ally.

Religion (Dharma) or the righteous path of ruling and leading life, Wealth (Artha) not only means money acquisition but also means distribution of the same according to class or Varnashram, Pleasure (Kam) means assessing what the subjects of the king seek as their daily needs and also to assess what they must have for their life leading in a virtuous style and Salvation (Moksh) means attaining the ultimate purpose of life (uniting with the lord).

Religion, Wealth, Pleasure and Salvation (i.e Dharma, Artha, Kam, Moksh) are the four fields that determines bondage of Husband and Wife. To a king, a Kingdom must be his first wife. And hence, Narada muni, in his principles of Political science guides Ajatshatru to divide his time separately on these four aspects, so that they can be given equal importance in life of his own and also in the life of his subjects. A King can then only be a successful one, when he provides his subjects guide and support in all these areas. Only supporting Wealth (Artha) or Pleasure (Kam), which rulers of Today provides doesn’t dictate a proper king.

Now coming to the very personal life of King, in the Political Science directory of Narada Muni, he talks about the security a King must follow in terms of choosing his servants and personal security. He also narrates the essence of keeping a measure of expenditure against his income and directs his to regularly think on the same at the end hour of the night.

Duty of a King Political Science Lesson by Narada Muni

Guidelines about Duty of a King
  • No decision must be taken alone, or not even by counsel of too many. Decision of Kingdom must not be relied on a single person, whosoever he is and regardless of the factor that he has immense knowledge of Shastras.
  • Measures that are already taken must only be known to people. Those that are in the state of counselling must not be disclosed to anyone.Justice must not be made thinking about the dear ones
  • A king must be a father to all and must look everyone with equal sight.
  • Monarch must not distinguish between any of his subjects, except the righteous one.
  • A king must ensure that anyone can reach him directly for justice
  • Get report of income and expenditure every forenoon from chief accountants
Explanation of Duty of a King Guidelines

Narada muni in his lessons on Political science to King Yudhisthira mentions that a king must not counsel his decisions with lots of people and not also must take singly without counselling. Righteous act of King, according to Manu Samhita states that a King must include the Chief Minister of the state on which a decision has to be made, the minister of that affair on which decision is to be taken and the Raj Guru who is the most learned one in the Kingdom. If the decision taken relies on any other department , information from them must be counselled separately, so that they cannot make a hunch even that a decision is soon going to be taken. Narada Muni, in his checklist of do’s and dont’s has stated the same.

Narada muni also warns the King that he must not be biased to any of his subjects. He again states that a righteous subject, who tells unpleasant words to a king must be more dear to a king, than someone who always praises what the king says. So, righteous men, even he can be in the enemy side, must be treated with great honour by the king.

The ministers of a king can be corrupted, the officers can also be corrupted. But when a king keeps his own door open to all the subjects and all subjects can reach him fearlessly, those corruptions are vanished in a moment. Hence, a King, according to the righteous Political science measures of the great Muni, must open his door for all his subjects.

Finally, Narada muni, in this segment states that there can be excellent financial ministers to him, but a King must go through the details of accounts on his own, every day.

Employment Strategy Political Science Lesson by Narada Muni
Guidelines about Employment Strategy
  • There must be Seven Top Officials: The governor of the citadel, the commander of forces, the chief judge, the general in interior command, the chief priest, the chief physician, and the chief astrologer
  • Ministers must be intelligent, brave, with his passions under complete control, and possessed of wisdom and judgment
  • Number of Ministers must be 18 and not more than that, including 3 Spy heads
  • Priest must be possessed of humility, and purity of blood, and renown, and without jealousy and illiberality, well-behaved, intelligent
  • Astrologer must be knowledgeable in physiognomy, capable of interpreting omens, and competent to neutralise the effect of the disturbances of nature
  • Experienced people, who are able to explain causes of things, learned in every branches of Morality must be appointed to train and guide the ministers every time.
  • No employee must remain who wishes increase of food and pay
  • Wives and Children of those, who gave life for the King must be provided special ration
  • There must be four types of forces: Regular troops, allies, mercenaries and irregulars
  • There must be Five offices for protecting the city:  the citadel, the merchants, and the agriculturists, and punishing the criminals
  • Employ people at low offices, watch their righteousness and intelligence and then only put them as senior officers
Explanation of Employment Strategy Guidelines

Narada Muni gives immense pressure on the employment strategy of a King in the Political Science checklist, recommended by him. He gives a thorough detail of what must be there in the upper level of the officials and the ministry level of the King. Alongside, he also mentions, how the lower office staffs should be and what must be done to them, for the sake of kingdom and subjects of Kingdom.

In his directions, he also mentioned that all the employees must be satisfied with the food and pay, they are provided. Hence, indirectly, Narada Muni directs the King to take care of the Money market of his kingdom too. How a city can be protected and a kingdom as a whole can be protected is also in the Political Science Checklist of the great sage. Along with that, he also stated, the qualities each of the Ministers must have with them. This particular section can readily prepare any one as a proper King, if closely followed.

Administration and Services Political Science Lesson by Narada Muni
Guidelines about Administration and Services
  • Agriculture must not be dependent only on heavy showers
  • Troops and cadres brought after the sway of foes, must be repressed under King’s own strong troops and must not be kept free
  • Not a single real thief can be freed from prison for lifetime, unless changes in behaviour is observed. A king must take care that no minister frees them by covert
  • It is the duty of king to look that not a single minister or official of his can be won by bribes. One found thus must be immediately retired with only ration for his observed duty.
  • Ministers must be themselves educated in Sastras
  • No ministers must be appointed whose passions are not under control
Explanation of Administration and Services

This is a vital part of the entire Lesson of Political Science by Narada Muni. This part narrates some of the statements as checklist, none of which are followed by the rulers of the present time. Similar things can be seen in case of the Duty of the King or Personal Life of the King too. This implies why the Political Science of present age has deteriorated so much now.

According to the guidelines, after an enemy is defeated, not a single cadre of that foe must be kept free. Everyone must be repressed under the sway of the ruler. This practice is seen today even in some cases.  A political leader, after winning an election when sits on the throne, mounts all the earlier cadres with his/her own cadre. However, the last two directions are never followed by the leaders of present time, and that lack of following is made quite intentionally and knowingly.

The real thieves are deliberately freed in market by the government now, which is an absolute no-to-do action for a king. At the same time, Bribe taking is a regular incidence now, where King himself mostly remains as the leader. The final two guidelines are to appoint ministers only when they are learned in Sastras. Sastras, here, essentially means the codes of conduct related to virtue. However, knowledge of Ministers of now are confined to the Constitution at most, if any. The final direction of Political Science by the renowned saint was to put those people as ministers only, whose passions are under control. Nothing to say here about today’s practices, since hardly one person in a million can be found like that.

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